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Les rongeurs du site Pliocène à Hominidés de Hadar (Ethiope)
Maurice Sabatier
Keywords: Ethiopia; hominids; Muridae; Pliocene
 
  Abstract

    The intensive exploration of the Pliocene Hadar Formation, rich in hominid remains, led us to the discovery of several micromammals levels. ln some of them, rodents are very abundant. The stratigraphic repartition of these levels do not cover the whole fossiliferous series of the formation but takes place only in the sedimentary members from Sidi Hakoma and Denen-Dora (rancing from 3.1 - 3.2 MY to 2.8 - 2.9 MY, according to the recent geochronological data). During this gap of time, the species do not show morphological changes, what allowed us to gather, in the same taxa, forms of slighty different ages.
    Two striking facts, giving a lot of indications, characterize these small rodents'faunas. First, we notice the domination of the Muridae, as well on a qualitative way (number of species) as on a quantitative one (number of individuals). Then, it appears that, until now, two genera of these murids were known only in the south-western asiatic regions. So, we can suppose continuous biotops between Africa and Indian Subcontinent before 3 MY. In this hypothesis, the hominids had already the possibility to leave their african « cradle ››. Finally, almost all studied genera are still represented at the present time. This fact, previously observed in Laetolil, Omo, Olduvai contributes to remove hope of establishing a biochronological scale based on rodents, in tropical zone. Nethertheless, that allows to try a reconstruction of the palaeoenvironnement, by using the principle of actualism.
      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 12, Fasc. 1 (1982)

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Mode de vie et affinités de Paschatherium (Condylarthra, Hyopsopontidae) d'après ses os du tarse
Marc Godinot, Thierry Smith and Richard Smith
Keywords: Astragalus; Calcaneum; Condylarthra; Eocene; Functional morphology; Paschatherium; Phylogeny
 
  Abstract

    Tarsals that can be confidently attributed to Paschatheríum dolloi from Dormaal (Belgium) are described. The astragalus is short; its broad neck is set at an angle of 30 degrees to the trochlea. The trochlea is pulley-shaped and proximally extended. There is no astragalar foramen. The medial tibial facet extends distally in a cup deeply excavated in the neck and buttressed. The sustentacular facet extends toward the navicular facet but is not fully confluent with it. The calcaneum bears a proximo-distally extended proximal facet for the astragalus. A relatively large peroneal tubercle projects from the body, and is situated distally. Functionally, the trochlea indicates extensive flexion-extension movements of the foot. Calcaneo-astragalar facets indicate sliding and rotation between the two tarsals. The inclination of the navicular facet suggests frequent foot inversion. The peroneal tubercle reflects good muscular capacities for foot rotation. Overall morphology is interpreted as a scansorial adaptation similar to that of sciurids.Comparisons are made with the tarsals of Macrocranion vandebroeki from Dormaal and Hyopsodus paulus from the Bridgerian of Wyoming. Some similarities between the astragali of Paschatherium and Macrocraníon (trochlea) are interpreted as convergences for rapid locomotion. However absence of mobility at the lower ankle and midtarsal joints in M. vandebroekzi suggests that this species was cursorial, as is known for M. tenerum from Messel. Similarities in the calcanea of Paschatherium and Hyopsodus are probably the result of close phylogenetic relations, and confirm the placement of Paschatherium in the hyopsodontids. The differences in the calcanea of Paschatherium and Macrocranion underline that Paschatherium is distinct from erinaceomorph insectivores. The differences in astragalar morphology between Paschatherium and Hyopsodus show that a marked adaptive divergence separates the two genera. We speculate about the common occurrence of a deep tibial cup (“cotylar fossa”) and a pulley-shaped trochlea in Paschatherium and hyracoids, suggesting that an adaptive scenario similar to that having led to Paschatherium (scansoriality) might explain the acquisition of the peculiar hyracoid tarsal characters; such a scenario contradicts the concept of Pantomesaxonia. Other peculiar characters of Hyopsodus suggest that hyopsodontids might be given more consideration in the search for hyracoid (and tethythere) origins. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 25, Fasc. 2-4 (1996)

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Types dentaires adaptatifs chez les sélaciens actuels et post-paléozoïques.
Henri Cappetta
Keywords: Dental types; evolution; Fossil selachians; Recent selachians; Trophic adaptations
 
  Abstract

    The dentition of selachians is characterized by an often very pronounced heterodonty involving a great morphological diversity. Despite this fact, the dentitions of selachians can be grouped in a rather reduced number of dental types corresponding to trophic adaptations: grasping, tearing, cutting, crushing, grinding and grasping-grinding type. The numerous exemples of convergence and parallelism that can be observed in fossil selachians and between Recent and fossil ones is the result of this reduced number of dental types. These dental specialisations allow to try a reconstruction of the way of life of fossil forms. 


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Published in Vol. 16, Fasc. 2 (1986)

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The Quaternary avifauna of Crete, Greece.
Peter D. Weesie
Keywords: Avifauna; Crete; Quaternary; systematics
 
  Abstract

    Pleistocene bird fossils have been studied from nine localities on Crete. Part of this material was described earlier by the author (Weesie, 1982) and will not be treated here in extenso, the results will be incorporated. More than one third of the over 10,000 fossil bird bones available could be identified ; they were found to represent at least 65 bird species. The following species of the Pleistocene Cretan avifauna are new to the fauna of Crete : Branta ruficollis, Haliaeetus albicilla, Gyps melitensis, Aquila chrysaetos simurgh n. ssp., Ketupa zeylomensis, Aegolius funereus, Dendrocopos leucotos, Zoothera dauma, Turdus iliacus and Pyrrhula pyrrhula. The Pleistocene Cretan avifauna differs less from comparable mainland avifaunas than (fossil) avifaunas from oceanic islands do. Still, the Pleistocene Cretan avifauna has two qualities that are characteristic of island avifaunas : the almost complete absence of a group of birds (the Galliformes) and the presence of two endemic (sub)species : the giant eagle Aquila chrysaetos simurgh n. ssp. and the long-legged owl Athene cretensis (Weesie, 1982). The new subspecies is described in the present study.
    These endemic birds of prey were found in association with their supposedly principal prey species (now extinct as well) : endemic mice for the owl and endemic deer for the eagle. Endemic mammals have been found in association with endemic birds of prey on many islands, not only in the Mediterranean. There is evidence that the size of endemic birds of prey becomes optimally adapted to their feeding on certain endemic mammals, especially rodents. Another characteristic of the Pleistocene Cretan avifauna is the great number of species of birds of prey. This appears to be a common characteristic of fossil avifaunas from caves on Mediterranean islands as well as from caves on the European mainland. However, we think that ecological conditions on Pleistocene Crete (especially the abundant presence of mice) helped to account for the high representation of birds of prey. Furthemore, the fossil avifauna enables us to draw some conclusions about the climate and vegetation on Pleistocene Crete : it is concluded that the climate was cooler than today and that Crete was largely covered with forests. Finally, the reasons for the extinction or disappearance from Crete of some bird species of the Pleistocene Cretan avifauna are discussed. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 18, Fasc. 1 (1988)

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Study of the Turolian hipparions of the lower Axios valley (Macedonia, Greece). 4. Localities of Dytiko.
George D. Koufos
Keywords: Equidae; Greece; Hipparion; Lower Axios Valley; Macedonia; Mammalia; Turolian
 
  Abstract

    The hipparions from the Dytiko localities of the lower Axios valley (Macedonia, Greece) are studied. The material comes from three localities Dytiko-l, 2, 3 (DTK, DIT, DKO), which are situated near the village of Dytiko, about 60 km northwest to Thessaloniki. Three species have been determined, the medium-sized H. mediterraneum, the small-sized H. matthewi and the very small-sized H. periafricanum. The determined Hipparion species, their morphological characters and their comparison with the other Axios valley material indicate a Late Turolian age for the Dytiko localities. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 18, Fasc. 4 (1988)

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An evening bat (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from the late Early Eocene of France, with comments on the antiquity of modern bats
Suzanne J. Hand, Bernard Sigé, Michael Archer and Karen H. Black
Keywords: evolution; palaeobiogeography; Prémontré; Western Europe; Ypresian

doi: 10.18563/pv.40.2.e2
 
  Abstract

    Bats are among the most numerous and widespread mammals today, but their fossil record is comparatively meagre and their early evolution poorly understood. Here we describe a new fossil bat from dental remains recovered from late Early Eocene sediments at Prémontré, northern France. This 50 million-year-old bat exhibits a mosaic of plesiomorphic and apomorphic dental features, including the presence of three lower premolars, a single-rooted p3, short p4 with metaconid, myotodont lower molars and a tall coronoid process of the dentary. This combination of features suggests it is an early member of Vespertilionidae, today’s most speciose and geographically widespread bat family. The Prémontré bat has bearing on hypotheses about the origins of vesper or evening bats (Family Vespertilionidae), as well as crown-group chiropterans.


      


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Published in Vol.40-2 (2016)

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Contributions à l'étude du gisement Miocène supérieur de Montredon (Hérault). Les grands mammifères. 7 - Les proboscidiens Deinotheriidae
Heinz Tobien
Keywords: allometry; Astaracian; Deinotherium; Montredon; systematics; taphonomy; Vallesian
 
  Abstract

    Some complete tooth rows and about one hundred isolated teeth enabled the identification of the deinothere of the Vallesian site Montredon (Hérault) as Deinotherium giganteum KAUP 1829, mainly by comparisons with the likewise Vallesian sample of the type locality Eppelsheim (Rheinhessen, F.R.G.).
    Scatterdiagrams of the teeth show the importance of allometry during the phyletic size increase of the European deinotheres.
    Some taphonomic problems of the Montredon deinothere are briefly mentioned. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 18, Ext (1988)

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Hexanchiforme nouveau (Neoselachii) du Crétacé inférieur du Sud de la France
Henri Cappetta
Keywords: Hexanchiformes; New genera; Southern France; systematics; Valanginian
 
  Abstract

    The dentition of Welcommia bodeuri nov. gen. nov. sp. from the Valanginian of Southem France is described and reconstructed. Species and genera of Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous Hexanchiformes are reviewed and discussed.
    The genus Notidanoides MAISEY, 1986 must be restricted to the single Nusplingen Upper Jurassic specimen, whose attribution to the species muensteri AGASSIZ, 1843 remains doubtful.
    The genus Paranotidanus WARD &THIES, 1987 that does not rest on any type-species nor on any precise dental characterization must be rejected.
    The genus Eonotidanus PFEIL, 1983, based on a very poorly preserved and heterogeneous type-material must also be rejected.
    Teeth from the Lower Cretaceous, with a peculiar morphology, previously assigned to Eonotidanus or to Notidanoides, are to be ranked in the new genus Pachyhexanchus


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 20, Fasc. 1 (1990)

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Sur les empreintes de pas des gros mammifères de l'Eocène supérieur de Garrigues-ste-Eulalie (Gard)
Paul Ellenberger
Keywords: Eocene; Euzet; Footprints; Ichnofauna
 
  Abstract

    Is hereby described an impressive lchnoiauna belonging to the Lower to Middle Ludian of the Gard (S. France). The slab, already cleaned over a length of 18 m, is located near the top of the Potamides aporoschema lacustrine limestone (Lower Ludian, Euzet zone). It is therefore older than the Célas sandstone deposit, and still more than the Melanoides albigensis and M. acutus marly limestone corresponding to the Upper Levels of the Ludian stage. Although biostratigraphically older than the La Débruge and Montmartre zone, the biotope shows already a sampling of very tall Artiodactyles, Perissodactyles and Carnivorous. One of the most « majestic ›› Artiodactyles, Anopolotheriipus lavocati, nov., points out a huge size type. To mention also among the Ichnotypes described, 10, the big Perissodactyle Palaeotheriipus similimedius, nov., and the big Carnivorous Hyaenodontipus praedator, nov. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 9, Ext (1980)

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Les serpents des phosphorites du Quercy
Jean-Claude Rage
Keywords: Grande Coupure; Quercy phosphorites; Serpents
 
  Abstract

    A short review of the genera and species of snakes from the Quercy's phosphorites described by former authors is followed by the study of specimens recently collected. Most of these latter specimens belong to the Aniliidae, Boidae, Colubridae and to the Scolecophidia; the precise systematic position of some of them is not defined yet. The following genera and species are described: Eonilius europae nov. gen. and nov. sp., Platyspondylia lepta nov. gen. and nov. sp., Coluber cadurci nov. sp. and Dunnophis cadurcensis nov.  sp.; a species described by de Rochebrune (Palaeopython filholi) is revised. One of the most important conclusions of this study is that the Colubridae appear as early as the Upper Eocene. The stratigraphic repartition of these snakes shows that the rich Upper Eocene fauna is followed by the very reduced fauna of the Lower Oligocene; then the oligocene «Grande Coupure» corresponds to a very important faunistic renewal. The fauna remains poor and little diversified during the beginning of the Middle Oligocene after which there is a new faunistic explosion. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 06, Fasc. 3-4 (1975)

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Un giraffidae dans le pliocène de Montpellier ?
Claude Guérin
Keywords: Artiodactyla; France; Giraffidae; Mammalia; Montpellier; Ruscinian
 
  Abstract

    An upper giraffid premolar without any indication about its origin is preserved at the Montpellier University among numerous fossils from the ruscinian formation of Montpellier. It can be related to Samotherium, of the Upper Miocene in Eastern Europe, North Africa and Asia, or more probably to Bramatherium  or Hydaspitherium of the Pliocene of South East Asia. The sedimentological study of the matrix shows a calcareous background, which may indicate that this tooth does not come from the Montpellier formation. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 16, Fasc. 3 (1986)

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Henri Menu, 1925-2007
Bernard Sigé
Keywords: bats; biography

doi: 10.18563/pv.36.1-4.1-5
 
  Abstract

    Record of life and works of Henri Menu, French zoologist, contributor to the knowledge of living and fossil bats. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 36, Fasc. 1-4 (2008)

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 Contributions à l'étude de l'anatomie crânienne des rongeurs. 1- Principaux types de cricétodontinés
Jean-Louis Hartenberger
Keywords: Cricetodon; Cricetodontinae; Miocene

doi: 10.18563/pv.1.2.47-64
 
  Abstract

    Description, for the first time, of the skull of Ruscinomys Depéret on the basis of a nearly complete specimen, and description of a new facial part of a Megacricetodon Fahlbusch skull (material from upper Miocene, Spain). New description of the skull (facial part) of " Cricetodon" incertum Schlosser on the basis of the specimen from the Oligocene of Quercy phosphorites already published by S. Schaub.
    Comparison of the skull of “ C.incertum with that of the asiatic genus Cricetops Matthew and Granger and that of the North-American Eumys Leidy. These three genera of similar age display very distinct characteristics; their common origin must go back to the Eocene, as Wood believed.
    Comparisons of the auditory regions of Ruscínomys and of Megacricetodon where important differences are noted. Comparison of the Cricetodontines from European Miocene with contemporary Cricetines. Contrary of the opinion held by Schaub, their anatomical differences do not seem suflicient to warrant the contention that none of the Cricetines derive from a form close to one of the known Cricetodontines. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 01, Fasc. 2 (1967)

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Pantolestidae nouveaux (Mammalia, Insectivora) de l'Eocène moyen de Bouxwiller (Alsace).
Jean-Jacques Jaeger
Keywords: Bouxwiller; Insectivora; Mammalia; Middle Eocene; Pantolestidae

doi: 10.18563/pv.3.3.63-82
 
  Abstract

    The Pantolestidae from the middle eocene of Bouxwiller are the subject of a detailed study. Buxolestes hammeli (n. g., n. sp.) is not closely related to any other European or North American form described until now; it presents, however, some characters in common with Pantolestes, a form of the same age from North America. A parallel evolution from a common ancestral form could explain this ressemblance.
    Another form (gen. and sp. indet.) accompanies Buxolertes hammeli in the Bouxwiller fauna.
      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 03, Fasc. 3 (1970)

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Batoids (Rajiformes, Torpediniformes, Myliobatiformes) from the Sülstorf Beds (Chattian, Late Oligocene) of Mecklenburg, northeastern Germany: a revision and description of three new species
Thomas Reinecke
Keywords: Batoids; Chattian; Elasmobranchii; North Sea Basin; Oligocene

doi: 10.18563/pv.39.2.e2
 
  Abstract

    Bulk-sampling of fossil-rich tempestites from the Chattian Sülstorf Beds of
    Mecklenburg, north-eastern Germany, yielded a rich selachian fauna in which batoids
    predominate by the abundance of teeth but are subordinate by the number of taxa. Thirteen
    taxa are identified, among which rajiform batoids are the most diverse (six species). One
    genus and three species are newly described: Raja thiedei sp. nov., Oligoraja pristina gen. et
    sp. nov., and Torpedo chattica sp. nov. Two species are reallocated: Atlantoraja cecilae
    (Steurbaut & Herman, 1978) new comb., and Dipturus casieri (Steurbaut & Herman, 1978)
    new comb. Ontogenetic heterodonty is documented for the first time in the dental pattern of
    Myliobatis sp. Stratigraphical ranges of batoid taxa in the period from Rupelian to Langhian
    are presented and partly discussed in context with the palaeoclimatic evolution and
    palaeogeographic situation of the North Sea Basin. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol.39-2 (2015)

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Les vertébres dévoniens de la Montagne Noire (Sud de la France) et leur apport à la phylogénie des pachyosteomorphes (Placodermes Arthrodires).
Hervé Lelièvre, Raimund Feist, Daniel Goujet and Alain Blieck
Keywords: Devonian; Montagne Noire; New taxon; Phylogeny; Placoderms; Stratigraphy; Vertebrate
 
  Abstract

    Several different taxa of jawed vertebrates are reported for the first time from the Devonian of south-eastern Montagne Noire, France. Besides some undeterminable fragments of placoderm fishes from the Pragian and Lower Emsian, the material from the Upper Devonian is mainly represented by Melanosteus occitanus gen. and sp. nov. (Frasnian) and Thoralodus cabrieri LEHMAN, 1952 ("Famennian"). The good state of preservation of Melanosteus allows a detailed anatomical study leading to a phylogenetic analysis of the selenosteid pachyosteomorphs. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 17, Fasc. 1 (1987)

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Physogaleus hemmooriensis (Carcharhinidae, Elasmobranchii), a new shark species from the early to middle Miocene of the north sea basin.
Thomas Reinecke and Kristiaan Hoedemakers
Keywords: Carcharhinidae; Early Miocene; Elasmobranchii; Hemmoorian; new species; North Sea Basin; Physogaleus
 
  Abstract

    A new carcharhinid shark species, Physogaleus hemmooriensis sp. nov., is described from the Lower Hemmoorian (Behrendorfian, late Burdigalian, early Miocene) of Werder, Lower Saxony, Germany. P. hemmooriensis also occurs in the Edegem and Antwerpen Sands Members of the Berchem Formation, Belgium, and in the Miste Bed, Aalten Member of the Breda Formation, The Netherlands, which have an early to middle Miocene age. In the Western Atlantic region, the taxon is present in the early Miocene Calvert Formation of Delaware, U.S.A, which is largely contemporaneous with the Hemmoorian. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 34, Fasc. 1-2 (2006)

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The late Miocene percrocutas (Carnivora,Mammalia) of Madedonia, Greece.
George D. Koufos
Keywords: Biochronology; Carnivora; Comparisons; Dinocrocuta; Greece; Late Miocene; Mammalia
 
  Abstract

    Some new material of percrocutas from the late Miocene of Axios valley (Macedonia, Greece) is studied. They have been found in the locality of "Pentalophos 1" (PNT). The material has been described and compared with the known late Miocene percrocutas of Eurasia. This comparison indicates that it can be identified as Dinocrocuta gigantea (SCHLOSSER, 1903). A maxilla of a percrocuta, named ”Hyaena" salonicae, was found in the same area (Andrews, 1918). "Hyaena" salonicae is smaller than the PNT material. It is also compared with other material from Eurasia while its taxonomic and age problems are discussed. It belongs to Dinocrocuta and shows close relationships with D. robusta and D. senyureki; its age can be considered as late Vallesian-early Turolian. The age of the locality PNT is also discussed and a possible Vallesian age is proposed for it. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 24, Fasc. 1-2 (1995)

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Die Ohr-Region der Paulchoffatiidae (Multituberculata, Ober-Jura).
Gerhard Hahn
Keywords: Multituberculata; Ober-Jura; Paulchoffatiidae; Petrosum; Portugal
 
  Abstract

    The petrosal of the Paulchoffatiidae HAHN, 1969 is described and compared with that of younger multituberculates and of other Mesozoic mammals. The "Morrison petrosal", described by Prothero (1983), is also discussed; it probably belongs to the multituberculates. The reconstruction of the ventral side of the Paulchoffatiinae-skull, given by Hahn in 1987, is completed by addition of the otic and the occipital region. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 18, Fasc. 3 (1988)

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A new Desmodillus (Gerbillinae, Rodentia) species from the early Pliocene site of Langebaanweg (South-western Cape, South Africa)
 
Christiane Denys and Thalassa Matthews
Keywords: Lower Pliocene; Muridae; Rodentia; RSA

doi: 10.18563/pv.41.1.e1
 
  Abstract

    Situated in the Cape region of the Republic of South Africa (RSA), the paleontological site of Langebaanweg is dated to 5.1 Myr and is famous for having yielded an abundant vertebrate assemblage, including numerous rodent species from the Mio-Pliocene transition. Based on molar morphology and skull anatomy, the single Gerbillinae taxon identified at Langebaanweg and described in this paper is allocated to Desmodillus, which is a modern monotypic South African endemic genus. It is significant in being the oldest representative of the genus in Africa. We describe here a new species of this genus which is larger than the modern D. auricularis, but nevertheless retains some of its main characteristics, namely the shape of the maxilla and mandible, the presence of poorly fused alternating cusps, and no longitudinal crest. This taxon differs from modern South African Gerbilliscus representatives in some mandibular and maxillary characters, in the m1 prelobe cusp, and in having less fused cusps. Two fossil Gerbillinae discovered in the Upper Miocene of Africa and Asia, Abudhabia and Protatera, have been compared with the new species. We discuss their relationships with modern and Plio-pleistocene Gerbillinae and conclude that Abudhabia could be the sister taxon of Desmodillus and that around 6-5 Myr a vicariance event allowed Gerbillinae to diversify into modern Desmodillus in South Africa, and Gerbilliscus in East Africa. The murine/gerbilline ratio, which is a good indicator of rainfall, supports other proxies which suggest that at 5.1 Myr the climate in the Langebaanweg region was more humid than today. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol 41-1 (2018)

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