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Old world hemiones and new world slender species (Mammalia, Equidae)
Véra Eisenmann, John Howe and Mario Pichardo
Keywords: Amerhippus; biometry; Equus; Holocene; New World; Old World; Osteology; Pleistocene; Pliocene

doi: 10.18563/pv.36.1-4.159-233

    Morphological and biometrical description of skulls, teeth, and limb bones of extant and fossil Old World herniones (including E. hydruntinus) and of New World 'stilt-Iegged' and other slender species from Blancan to Holocene. An Appendix presents ways in which the approximate size of some missing bones or dimensions may be deduced from available ones.

    The discussed and/or illustrated fossils were found in Bolivia (Tarija), Canada (Yukon), China (Choukoutien, Gulongshan, Jiling, Loufangzi), Ecuador (Oil Fields), Ethiopia (Melka Kunturé), France (Lunel-Viel), Germany (Süssenborn), Greece (Agios Georgios, Petralona), Hungary (Dorog), Italy (Romanelli), Mexico (Cedazo, San Josecito), Mongolia (Sjara-osso-gol), Spain (Venta Micena), ex-Soviet Union (Akhalkalaki, Binagady, Chokurcha, Chukochya, Kabazi, Kolyma, Krestovka, Kurtak, Staroselie, Tologoj), USA (Alaska, Arkalon, Cedar Meadow, Channing, Conkling, Dry Mountains, Hay Springs, Leisey Shell Pit A, Lissie Formation, Natural Trap, Pool Branch, Powers Ranch, Rock Creek, San Diego, Santo Domingo, Seymour Formation, Shelter, Slaton, Trinity River). Numerous raw or statistically elaborated data are given in Tables.

    There is no evidence for the existence of Old World hemiones in the New World nor of 'stilt-Iegged' equids in the Old World. The first 'stilt-Iegged' equid was found at Santo Domingo, New Mexico, and is believed to be Late Blancan. It was probably at the origin of E. calobatus (Arkalon, Rock Creek) and of the smaller E. semiplicatus (Channing, Rock Creek). Slender, but not 'stilt-Iegged', equids found at Natural Trap, Wyoming, ca. 12 ky ago belong to Amerhippus. AlI these species share with Oid World Sussemiones (and some hemiones) peculiar patterns on the lower cheek teeth.

    The slender Equus sp. B of Leisey Pit A, Florida, ca. 1.2 Ma, as weIl as Amerhippus francisci and E. tau (probably a senior synonym of E. quinni) share conventional lower cheek teeth patterns. The skulls of A. francisci and E. tau, however, are quite different.

    Paleontological data suggest a common origin of Amerhippus, Sussemiones, and 'stilt-Iegged' equids during the late Blancan. Old World hemiones seem to have differentiated later. 

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Published in Vol. 36, Fasc. 1-4 (2008)

Equus caballus antunesi, nouvelle sous-espèce Quaternaire du Portugal
Joao L. Cardoso and Véra Eisenmann
Keywords: Equidae; Equus caballus; new subspecies; Perissodactyla; Portugal; Würm

    Equus caballus antunesi, nova subspecies, was a hypsodont, slender, and rather small horse (around 141cm at the withers), with narrow hooves and protocones longer on P3/-P4/ than on M1/-M2/. It does not fit in any of the different "types" of Pleistocene caballine horses previously recognized but may be related to the horse from the Acheulean of Solana del Zamborino.
    Hypsodonty, small size, slenderness, narrow hooves are all characters that can easily be related to ecological conditions. Equus caballus antunesi was probably a horse adapted to rather dry and cold conditions and to a hard ground. It does not seem related at all to the North-European Equus caballus germanicus-gallicus group. 

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Published in Vol. 19, Fasc. 2 (1989)

Contributions à l'étude du gisement Miocène supérieur de Montredon (Hérault). Les grands mammifères. 5 - Les périssodactyles Equidae
Véra Eisenmann
Keywords: Equidae; Hipparion; Late Vallesian; Mammalia; Montredon; Perissodactyla

    Revision of the hipparion material from Montredon, including newly excavated and other unpublished specimens brings evidence of specific heterogeneity.
    A fragmentary very small MC III seems very close to H. macedonicum from the upper Vallesian of Ravin de la Pluie, Greece. In that same site was also found a large hipparion.
    Most of the Montredon material is referred to H. depereti. This species associates characters usually found in Vallesian hipparions (highly plicated upper cheek teeth, deep vestíbular grooves on the lower cheek teeth, robust metapodials) with characters more frequent in Turolian forms (middle size, lack of confluence in the upper premolar fossettes, lack of ectostylids on the adult lower cheek teeth, well developped keel on the MC III, facette for the 2nd cuneiform present on all MT III). H. depereti shares some of these characters with the Spanish and Portuguese hipparions transítional between the Vallesian and the Turolian (Masia del Barbo, Azambujeira) but is not identícal to any of them. The upper Vallesian hipparion material from Diavata, Greece, probably belongs to H. depereti but not the large hipparion rests from Ravin de la Pluie.
    Thus, Montredon and Ravin de la Pluie may well share the same small species, H. macedonicum, but they differ in the associated one: middle-sized H. depereti at Montredon, large-sized H. primigenium at Ravin de la Pluie. Both sites, however, give evidence of small hipparions during the Vallesian, coexisting with other larger species.
    The present paper also proposes an adaptation of the Kiesewalter's indices that calculates the height at the withers using the metapodial length, and discusses indices proposed by Gromova and by Sen et al. to express the relative development of the metapodial keel. 

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Published in Vol. 18, Ext (1988)

Etude des dents jugales inférieures des Equus (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) actuels et fossiles
Véra Eisenmann
Keywords: Cheek teeth; Equus; Mammals

    The comparative morphology and biometry of the lower cheek teeth of modern Equus are studied on approximately 300 mandibles belonging to the 10 usually recognised species : Equus grevyi, E. burchelli, E. quagga, E. zebra, E. africanus, E. asinus, E. hemionus, E. klang, E. przewalskii, E. caballus. The studied parameters comprise : occlusal length and width, postflexid length and index ; shape of the double knot (metaconid + metastylid + lingual groove) ; depth of the vestibular groove on the molars ; frequency of the pli caballinid, protostylid and other enamel plications or islets ; frequency of the dP/l.
    The same methods of study are applied to a number of North American, Eurasian and African species. For the sake of comparison, some Hemphillian equids were observed (Dinohippus interpolatus, Dinohippus leidyanus, Astrohippus ansae, Phiohippus mexicanus) but most of the discussed material belongs to Pliocene or Pleistocene species of Equus : the « stenonine ›› E. stenonis, E. simplicidens, E. sanmeniensis and E. teilhardi; the « caballine ›› E. scotti, E. lambei, E. Iaurentius, E. mosbachensis, E. germanicus, E. gallicus, E. taubachensis and the Liakhov horse. The relationships of other species, in particular the North American E. calobatus, E. occidentalis, E. cf mexicanus are not clear for the moment. ln Africa, the Plio-Pleistocene species from Koobi Fora (Kenya) show some stenonine and perhaps asinine affinities. The relationships of E. numidicus and E. tabeti are uncertain but these species are probably related to the East African ones. E. mauritanicus is most certainly related to the Quagga group.
    The biometrical data are gathered in 32 tables ; 4 photographie plates and 19 figures illustrate the next. The whole is a complement of the previously published studies of the skulls, upper cheek teeth, incisors and metapodials of modern and fossil Equus.


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 10, Fasc. 3-4 (1981)