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Les Périssodactyles (Mammalia) du gisement Bartonien supérieur de Robiac (Éocène moyen du Gard, Sud de la France)
Jean-Albert Remy
Keywords: Chasmotherium; new species; Palaeotheriidae; paleoenvironments

doi: 10.18563/pv.39.1.e3
 
  Abstract

    We present here a new updated counting of the perissodactyls of Robiac, the type locality of the MP 16 level of the biochronological scale of paleogene mammals and that of the Robiacian stage of Eocene Land Mammals Ages in Western Europe.
    The outcrop of Robiac consists actually of two 500m apart loci, Robiac-Nord and Robiac-Sud, considered of the same age according to the current discriminating power, and is dated from -38,7 MA after the last faunal, magnetostratigraphic and climatic calibrations.
    It has yielded a very abundant and rich of 21 taxa perissodactyl fauna, topped by the giant Lophiodon lautricense, last representative of the family Lophiodontidae, of which it is the last proved deposit. The Palaeotheriidae are much diversified with 5 genera and 9 species of "Pachynolophinae", 3 genera and 10 species of Palaeotheriinae. Nine taxa have been defined from Robiac: Chasmotherium depereti n. sp., Palaeotherium castrense robiacense Franzen, 1968, the genus Leptolophus Remy, 1965 with the species L. stehlini Remy, 1965 and L. magnus Remy, 1998, Anchilophus (Paranchilophus) jeanteti Remy, 2012, Metanchilophus chaubeti Remy, 2012, Lophiotherium robiacense Depéret, 1917 and Pachynolophus gaytei n. sp.
    The faunal Robiac cenogram with the associated flora testify to a hot, wet and forestal environment, likely corresponding to a short warming climatic phase; the broken up fossil bones should have been carried away and then gathered in swamp areas along the banks of a meandering river.
    The swarm of mammals of Robiac, the richest of contemporaneous deposits, has been followed by a drastic drop in perissodactyl diversity at the MP 17A level; a crisis which could have originated in a renewal of the global Eocene cooling. Fons 4, the type-locality of this level, is largely scarcer in perissodactyls and its cenogram testifies to a less diversified fauna, with on the whole smaller species, that likely means a cooler and drier climatic environment; a new perissodactyl diversification occurred but later.
      


  Article infos

Published in Vol.39-1 (2015)

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A femur of the Late Cretaceous giant bird Gargantuavis from Cruzy (southern France) and its systematic implications
 
Eric Buffetaut and Delphine Angst
Keywords: Aves; femur; France; Gargantuavis; Late Cretaceous

doi: 10.18563/pv.42.1.e3
 
  Abstract


    A large avian femur recently discovered at the Late Cretaceous Montplo-Nord locality at Cruzy (Hérault, southern France) is referred to the giant bird Gargantuavis philoinos. The estimated mass of the bird is 57 kg, within the range of living cassowaries. The specimen provides new evidence about the anatomy of G. philoinos, notably showing that the distal end of the femur was similar to that of modern birds in having a condylus lateralis subdivided into two semicondyles. A new diagnosis of Gargantuavis philoinos is provided and the taxon is placed in a new family of basal ornithurines.
      


  Article infos

Published in Vol 42-1 (2019)

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Muridae (Rodentia) du Pliocène supérieur d'Espagne et du midi de la France.
Jacques Michaux
Keywords: Anthracomys meini; Castillomys crusafonti; Pliocene; Rodents; Valerymys ellenbergeri

doi: 10.18563/pv.3.1.1-25
 
  Abstract

    The murid fauna of the terminal Pliocene of southwest Europe is rich in at least eight genera and ten species. With the species belonging to the genera Apodemus, Rhagapodemus, and Stephanomys not being studied here, the study of the other murids resulted for one thing in the description of three new genera and three new species: Castillomys crusafonti n. g., n. sp., Occitanomys brailloni n. g., n. sp., Anthracomys meini n. sp., Valerymys ellenbergerí (THALER) n. g., and for another thing in the recognition of a form hitherto unknown in this region, Micromys praeminutus KRETZOI. Systematic study has shown that certain species of the terminal Pliocene fauna had their ancestors in the Turolian fauna presently known in Spain. The evolutionary lineages thereby recognized have been studied more in detail and a list of the evolutionary tendencies of the dendal characters has been given. A chart of the probable phyletic relationships between the different murids of the Pliocene faunas of southwest Europe (With the genus Rhagapodemus and Apodemus dominans being excluded) is given in conclusion of this work. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 03, Fasc. 1 (1969)

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Les Dipodidae (Mammalia, Rodentia) d'Europe occidentale au Paléogène et au Néogène inférieur: origine et évolution.
Marguerite Hugueney and Monique Vianey-Liaud
Keywords: Dipodidae; Late Oligocene; Quercy phosphorites
 
  Abstract

    The study of three new populations of Plesiosminthuspromyarion from the "phosphorites du Quercy" and of material from "Auvergne" brings new data on european oligocene Dipodidae. They appear in Western Europe at the beginning of late Oligocene. Evolutionary trends of the group are drawn and particularly the emergence of morphotypes announcing P. schaubi, from the Coderet level, is revealed among the most recent populations of P. promyarion. Differences are attempted to be drawn between the three species : P. promyarion, P. myarion and P. schaubi by restudying the type-population of P. myarion from the aquitanian deposits of Chavroches (Allier) in comparison with two other populations from the same age and the same region. Relationships between early european, american and asiatic Dipodidae are discussed. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 9, Ext (1980)

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Rythme et modalités de l'évolution chez les rongeurs à la fin de l'Oligocène-leurs relations avec les changements de l'environnement.
Bernard Comte
Keywords: Environment; evolution; Oligocene; Rodents; systematics
 
  Abstract

    The analysis of oxygene isotope variations as well as paleobotanical data suggest that the Oligocene/Miocene boundary corresponds to a transitional period marked by floristical and climatic variations. During this period, the pyreneo-alpine tectonics has contribued to modify the geography and western Europe landscapes. Faunal changes (appearances, extinctions, migrations) are observed in different mammalian groups, notably in the rodents. A study of the evolutionary trends and patterns in paleogene rodents is involved for the period ranging from level MP 28 of the Late Oligocene to the Early Miocene, including the Oligo-Miocene boundary.
    The Rodents fauna from the sites of Venelles (Bouches-du-Rhône District, France) and Thezels (Lot, France), previously mentionned in litterature, have been studied. The first description of the Eomyidae of La Milloque (MP 29) has been completed. These faunas are compared to those from various localities dating from the considered period. In La Milloque, a new representative of the Eomys species is described next to a form close to Rhodanomys hugueneyae ENGESSER, 1987. It is the Eomys milloquensis nov. sp., the likely descendant of Eomys quercyi COMTE & VIANEY-LIAUD, 1987. Two new species are also described in Thezels: Eucricetodon thezelensis nov. sp., resulting from a likely and local evolution of Eucricetodon praecursor (SCHAUB, 1925) from La Milloque, which, in the same geographic area, could be at the origin of Eucricetodon hesperius ENGESSER, 1985 from Paulhiac. Plesiosminthus admyarion nov. sp., quite distinct from Plesiosminthus schaubi VIRET, 1926, which announces Plesiosminthus myarion SCHAUB 1930. Venelles 'Plesiosminthus schaubi population is considered as a sub-species, named Plesiosminthus schaubi meridionalis nov. subsp. New phylogenetic patterns are proposed. Among the Eomyidae, a quantification of various features of the M1-2/ crown (hypsodonty, degree of abrasion, occlusal angle, state of development of the I and V anticlines), and a comparison with the occlusal diagram of the other teeth among various other populations allows a more efficient separation of Eomys and Rhodanomys genera. In Western Europe, and within this period, it finally does not seem possible to gradually connect the genus Eomys to the genus Rhodanomys. The evolution of the Eomys quercyi - milloquensis lineage seems to underline a similar evolution to that which may have led from the Eomys to the Rhodanomys form. The latter which appears totally accomplished at level MP 29 of the Oligocene is considered as an immigrant. If we compare the most representative species of the Venelles, Thezels, and Coderet sites, (i.e. Rhodanomys, Eucricetodon, Adelomyarion, Peridyromys, Plesíosminthus), it becomes impossible to confirm their biochronological separation. The noticeable differences between the populations may be interpreted as geographical variations. An explanation to these variations, and to fauna's evolution during the Late Oligocene and Early Miocene can be found in the environmental modifications, supported by isotopic, paleobotanical and sedimentologic analysis. A tentative reconstruction of the environments is attempted by the cenogram method. The analysis of the fluctuations of fauna's diversity shows variations which may be correlated to a drop in temperature at MP 29, during the Late Oligocene, followed by an increase in temperature along with an aridity phenomenom, during the basal Miocene (MN O).The confrontation of various methods give the opportunity of reconstituting and comparing the evolution of the environment of three sequences of sites chosen from different regions. Ecological affinities of various rodents' species are being examined. It is possible to consider that the integration of all the conclusions resulting from this study should lead to an explanation to the evolution of rodents for the period around the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. The site of Coderet- level 3- would be posterior to the latter, at the beginnig of the Miocene, and would mark the level MN 0 of the Aquitanian.

      


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Published in Vol. 29, Fasc. 2-4 (2000)

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Types dentaires adaptatifs chez les sélaciens actuels et post-paléozoïques.
Henri Cappetta
Keywords: Dental types; evolution; Fossil selachians; Recent selachians; Trophic adaptations
 
  Abstract

    The dentition of selachians is characterized by an often very pronounced heterodonty involving a great morphological diversity. Despite this fact, the dentitions of selachians can be grouped in a rather reduced number of dental types corresponding to trophic adaptations: grasping, tearing, cutting, crushing, grinding and grasping-grinding type. The numerous exemples of convergence and parallelism that can be observed in fossil selachians and between Recent and fossil ones is the result of this reduced number of dental types. These dental specialisations allow to try a reconstruction of the way of life of fossil forms. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 16, Fasc. 2 (1986)

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Sur les empreintes de pas des gros mammifères de l'Eocène supérieur de Garrigues-ste-Eulalie (Gard)
Paul Ellenberger
Keywords: Eocene; Euzet; Footprints; Ichnofauna
 
  Abstract

    Is hereby described an impressive lchnoiauna belonging to the Lower to Middle Ludian of the Gard (S. France). The slab, already cleaned over a length of 18 m, is located near the top of the Potamides aporoschema lacustrine limestone (Lower Ludian, Euzet zone). It is therefore older than the Célas sandstone deposit, and still more than the Melanoides albigensis and M. acutus marly limestone corresponding to the Upper Levels of the Ludian stage. Although biostratigraphically older than the La Débruge and Montmartre zone, the biotope shows already a sampling of very tall Artiodactyles, Perissodactyles and Carnivorous. One of the most « majestic ›› Artiodactyles, Anopolotheriipus lavocati, nov., points out a huge size type. To mention also among the Ichnotypes described, 10, the big Perissodactyle Palaeotheriipus similimedius, nov., and the big Carnivorous Hyaenodontipus praedator, nov. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 9, Ext (1980)

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Les rongeurs de l' Eocène inférieur et moyen d'Europe Occidentale; Systématique, phylogénie, biochronologie et paléobiogéographie des niveaux-repères MP 7 à  MP 14.
Gilles Escarguel
Keywords: Biochronology; Early and Middle Eocene; Gliridae; Ischyromyidae; Mammalia; MP Scale; New Genus and Species; Palaeogeography; Phylogeny; Rodents; Theridomyidae; Western Europe
 
  Abstract

    Fourteen distinct phyletical lineages which belong at least in three families: Ischyromyidae ALSTON, 1876, Gliridae THOMAS, 1896 and Theridomyidae ALSTON, 1876, have been identified after the study of more than 3600 rodent dental remains from about twenty Early and Middle Eocene european localities. A systematical and phylogenetical revision of these rodents has been achieved. Nearly all the specific and generic diagnosis are emended. Several new combinations and synonymies are proposed. Four new species and two new genera, Euromys nov. (Ailuravinae) and Hartenbergeromys nov. (Microparamyini), are named and described. Euromys nov. gen. is known by three distinctive ypresian (MP 7 to MP 10 european reference levels) chronospecies. This new lineage is thought to be the direct ancestor of Meldimys MICHAUX, 1968 and Ailuravus RUTIMEYER, 1891. A new species of the genus Plesiarctomys BRAVARD, 1850, Pl. lapicidinarum from Condé-en-Brie (MP 8-9 reference level), allows to relate the Plesiarctomys lineage to the Pseudoparamys MICHAUX, 1964 one. The taxa Sparnacomys HARTENBERGER, 1971, Pantrogna HARTENBERGER, 1971, and Corbarimys MARANDAT, 1989 are erected to genus rank; the last one is not thought to be an Ischyromyidae. A new chronospecies of Pantrogna, P. marandati nov. sp. from the locality of Prémontré (MP 10 reference level), is described. This lineage is at the origin of two others, namely Masillamys TOBIEN, 1954, including M. mattaueri (HARTENBERGER, 1975) nov. comb. (MP 10 reference level), and Hartenbergeromys nov. gen., known from MP 10 (H. hautefeuillei nov. sp.) and MP 11 (H. parvus TOBIEN, 1954) reference levels. The phylogenetical position of Hartenbergeromys nov. gen., at the origin of the european family Theridomyidae, is discussed. The systematical and phylogenetical status of two probable Paramyinae, "Paramys" woodi MICHAUX, 1964 and an unnamed genus and species, are discussed. New populations of the primitive Gliridae Eogliravus HARTENBERGER, 1971 and of the primitive Theridomyidae Protadelomys HARTENBERGER, 1968, are described and assigned to previously known species.

      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 28, Fasc. 2-4 (1999)

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A new species of bat (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from the early Oligocene global cooling period, Brule Formation, North Dakota, USA
Nicholas Czaplewski, Jeff Person, Clint Boyd and Robert Emry
Keywords: Eocene-Oligocene global cooling; Mammalia; Oligocene; Plecotini; Quinetia

doi: 10.18563/pv.42.2.e2
 
  Abstract

    We report the first confirmed fossil bats from North Dakota, including a new species referable to the Vespertilionidae represented by a maxilla with P4-M3 from the Brule Formation, Fitterer Ranch local fauna, early Oligocene, Whitneyan North American Land Mammal Age. Unassociated postcranial fragments of the humerus and femur also represent a vespertilionoid, but appear to reflect a different, unidentified species. The new taxon, Quinetia frigidaria sp. nov., is referred to the genus Quinetia, previously known only from approximately contemporaneous deposits in Europe. The new species is larger than Quinetia misonnei from the early Oligocene of Belgium. It is similar in some morphological characters to Chadronycteris rabenae (Chiroptera incertae sedis) of the late Eocene (Chadronian) of northwestern Nebraska and to Stehlinia species (?Palaeochiropterygidae) from the Eocene and Oligocene of Europe, but differs from each in morphological details of the dentition and maxilla. An unassociated talonid of a lower molar from Fitterer Ranch shows myotodont morphology, unlike the nyctalodont lower molars in Q. misonnei, and thus represents a second chiropteran taxon in the fauna. Quinetia frigidaria is a member of a Paleogene radiation of bats near the low point of the Eocene-early Oligocene decline in global temperatures, increased seasonal aridity, and loss of tropical floras from mid-latitude North America. 


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in press

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First evidence of an early Miocene marine teleostean fish fauna (otoliths) from la Paillade.(Montpellier,France)
Bettina Reichenbacher and Henri Cappetta
Keywords: Aquitanian; Biostratigraphy; La Paillade; marine deposits; Miocene; otoliths; Palaeoecology; Palaeogeography; Southern France; Teleostei
 
  Abstract

    A fossil fish fauna, based on 5533 otoliths, from the La Paillade locality at Montpellier is described and figured. The otolith-bearing marls correlate to mammal zone MN l (Aguilar, 1982), and thus represent the earliest Miocene. The fish fauna consists of 30 taxa belonging to 20 families. Two species are new: Dussumieria sittigi and Liza gaudanti. The predominant faunal element is the Lesueurigobius vicínalis-species complex, composing 73% of all investigated otoliths. The palaeoecological analysis reveals a marine to euryhaline fish fauna living under tropical to subtropical conditions in the transition zone littoral - sublittoral. Water depth probably was more than 10 m. The scarcity of pelagic físhes suggests that the habitat was either a sheltered bay and/or far away from the open sea. Furthermore, some genera represented in the La Paillade fish fauna presently live exclusively in the Indopacific realm. Their presence strongly supports a broad connection between the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean, and the Paratethys Seas during the Early Miocene (Aquitanian). From a palaeobiogeographical point of view, faunal relationships were found between the La Paillade fish fauna and both the Paratethys fish fauna and the fish fauna from the deposits in the Upper Rhinegraben and the Mayence and Hanau Basins (Germany).



      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 28, Fasc. 1 (1999)

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Le genre Mesembriacerus (Bovidae, Artiodactyla, Mammalia) : un Oviboviné primitif du Vallésien (Miocène supérieur) de Macédoine (Grèce)
Geneviève Bouvrain and Louis de Bonis
Keywords: Bovidae; Cladistics; Late Miocene; Ovibovinae; Vallesian
 
  Abstract

    The bovid Mesembriacerus melentisi, the numerous skulls, teeth and limb bones of which are described from the locality Ravin de la Pluie (Macedonia, Greece), bears some features which allow us to put it in the tribe ovibovini (Ovibovinae) with several other Miocene genera and the Recent one Ovibos. A cladogram gives the phyletic relationships within this tribe. It shows that Mesembriacerus which is one of the oldest genera, is also the most primitive. The limb bones are as elongated as those of Recent cursorial bovids and they show, as does the bulk of the fauna, an open environment for the locality. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 14, Fasc. 4 (1984)

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La plus ancienne faune de mammifères du Quercy : Le Bretou
Jean-Louis Hartenberger, Bernard Sigé and Jean Sudre
Keywords: Le Bretou; Quercy phosphorites
 
  Abstract

    Abstract not available 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 06, Fasc. 3-4 (1975)

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Schmelzmikrostruktur in den inzisiven alt-und neuweltlicher histricognather nagetiere
Thomas Martin
Keywords: Africa; Caviomorpha; Ctenodactyloidea; Deseadan; Enamel microstructure; Hunter-Schreger bands; Hystricognathi; Incisors; Ischyromyoidea; multiserial; Paleobiogeography; pauciserial; Phiomorpha; Rodentia; South America
 
  Abstract

    Enamel microstructure in the incisors of Old- and New World hystricognath rodents:

    The incisor enamel microstructure in more than 100 genera of fossil and Recent hystricognath and sciurognath rodents was studied. A multiserial schmelzmuster is present in the Hystricognathi, the Ctenodactylidae, advanced Chapattimyidae, and in Pedetes. A redefinition of pauciserial and multiserial HSB is given that makes the two enamel types unambiguously distinguishable which apparently represent well defined evolutionary levels. In the pauciserial Schmelzmuster the IPM is thicker than in the multiserial one. In pauciserial HSB the IPM always surrounds each prism, and the crystallites of the IPM run parallel to prism direction; transition zones between HSB are lacking; the inclination of the HSB is normally very low and the prism cross sections are not flattened but somewhat irregular. The number of prisms per HSB is no good distinctive character for pauciserial and multiserial HSB, since there exists a wide overlap. The pauciserial schmelzmuster is primitive, the multiseiial derived because: 1. the pauciseiial schmelzmuster appears earlier in the fossil record in the most primitive rodents (Paramyids s.l. and Ctenodactyloids); 2. the Eocene Ctenodactyloidea show pauciserial HSB but the Oligocene and younger ones are characterized by multiserial HSB; 3. in the outgroup comparison, the Eurymylidae (Mixodontia) show pauciserial HSB; 4. biomechanically, multiserial HSB strenghten the enamel better than pauciserial HSB, since their IPM runs nearly always in an angle of 45° or more to the prisms.

    In multiseríal HSB three subtypes can be distinguished which are differentiated by the IPM orientation. Primitive is a (rarely strict) parallel or acute angular, anastomozing IPM, and derived is an interrow sheet-like ("plattenartige") IPM. This evolutionary polarity is indicated by enamel evolution in the Ctenodactylidae which show an acute angular IPM in the Oligocene and a rectangular interrow sheet-like IPM since the Miocene. Among the Caviomorpha a rectangular interrow sheet-like IPM is restricted to the Octodontoidea; therefore they must be considered derived in terms of their enamel structure. The first multiserial HSB in rodent incisors appear in phiomyids or chapatrimyids from the Upper Eocene of Algeria. The IPM is acute angular and anastomozing. The worldwide next younger multiserial HSB are found in Lower Oligocene phiomyids of Fayum, Egypt There already a rectangular interrow sheet like IPM is present (in Metaphiomys) besides the acute angular anastomozing IPM.

    The first Caviomorpha from the Deseadan (Oligocene-Miocene) likewise show already acute angular anastomozing IPM (e.g. Scozamys) and rectangular interrow sheet-like IPM (Platypittamys). Therefore the first Caviomorpha cannot be positioned close to a transition from pauciserial to multiserial HSB. In none of the potential caviomorph ancestors from southern North America multiserial HSB or transitional stage between pauciserial and multiserial HSB could be found. The similarities between the enamel types of the Fayum rodents and the rodents from the Deseadan of South America make a derivation of the Caviomorpha from Paleogene North African phiomorph rodents or their direct ancestors most probable. This supports at the same time a descent of the platyrrhine Primates from North African anthropoids.
      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 21, Ext (1992)

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Rongeurs nouveaux de l'Oligocène Moyen d'Espagne.
Louis Thaler
Keywords: Cricetidae; Oligocene; Pseudocricetodon; Rodents; Theridomys

doi: 10.18563/pv.2.5.191-207
 
  Abstract

    Description of four new rodents from a recently discovered locality at Montalban. Theridomys crusafonti nov. sp. is considered as the ancestry of T. Iembronicus. Theridomys varian: nov. sp. includes «Theridomys» morphotypes and «Blainvilllimys» morphotypes; it could be ancestral to B. blainvillei. Pseudoltinomys nanus nov. sp. represents a new lineage paralleling in evolution that of P. gaillardi (which is equally found at Montalban). Pseudocricetodon montalbanensis nov. gen., nov. sp. designates a lineage of very small Cricetidae accompanying Eucricetodon. With these well defined new species and six others present in the locality, Montalban appears as the best faunal reference point within the biochronologic zone of La Sauvetat.
    As an annex, discussion of two rodent specimens from the classic localíty of Tárrega, close in age to that of Montalban. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 02, Fasc. 5 (1969)

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New remains of the giant bird Gargantuavis philoinos from the Late Cretaceous of Provence (south-eastern France)
Eric Buffetaut, Delphine Angst, Patrick Mechin and Annie Mechin-Salessy
Keywords: Aves; Gargantuavis; Late Cretaceous; Pelvis; South-eastern France

doi: 10.18563/pv.39.2.e3
 
  Abstract


    Two incomplete pelves of the giant bird Gargantuavis philoinos are described from Late Cretaceous deposits at Fox-Amphoux (Var, south-eastern France). They consist of synsacra with attached parts of the ilia. One of them has undergone considerable dorsoventral compression, which makes it very similar in appearance to the holotype pelvis of Gargantuavis philoinos from Campagne-sur-Aude (Aude, southern France). The second specimen has suffered some lateral distortion but is uncrushed dorsoventrally. Because of this, its avians characters (including an arched synsacrum and widespread pneumatisation) are especially clear. These new specimens confirm the avian nature of Gargantuavis and reveal new details about its pelvic anatomy, but provide little new evidence about its systematic position within Aves. The geographical distribution and general rarity of Gargantuavis are discussed.
      


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Published in Vol.39-2 (2015)

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Two new scyliorhinid shark species (Elasmobranchii, Carcharhiniformes, Scyliorhinidae), from the Sülstorf Beds (Chattian, Late Oligocene) of the southeastern North Sea Basin, northern Germany.
Thomas Reinecke
Keywords: Chattian; Elasmobranchii; North Sea Basin; Scyliorhinidae; Scyliorhinus

doi: 10.18563/pv.38.1.e1
 
  Abstract

    Based on isolated teeth two new scyliorhinid shark species, Scyliorhinus biformis nov. sp. and Scyliorhinus suelstorfensis nov. sp., are described from the Sülstorf Beds, early-middle Chattian, of Mecklenburg, northeastern Germany. They form part of a speciose assemblage of necto-benthic sharks and batoids which populated the warm-temperate to subtropical upper shelf sea of the south-eastern North Sea Basin. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol.38-1 (2014)

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Les oiseaux aquatiques (Gaviiformes à Anseriformes) du gisement Aquitanien de Saint-Gerand-le-Puy (Allier, France): Révision systématique.
Jacques Cheneval
Keywords: Aves; Early Miocene; Osteology; Palaeoecology; systematics
 
  Abstract

    Six orders of birds adapted to aquatic life are represented among the numerous avifauna of "Saint-Gérand-le-Puy": Gaviiformes, Procellariiformes, Pelecaniformes, Ciconiiformes, Phoenicopteriformes, and Anseriformes. The present study of this avifauna proposes several changes in systematics:- Procellariiformes: Puffinus arvernensis does not belong in Procellariidae but in Diomodeidae, and it is transferred to the fossil genus Plotornis previously described in the Middle Miocene of France. - Pelecaniformes: Phalacrocorax littoralis remains in Phalacrocoracidae; P. míocaenus is different from the modern species, and is transferred to the new genus Nectornis. Empheresula arvernensis, described in the Oligocene deposits of Gannat, seems to be present in Saint-Gérand-le-Puy too. Pelecanus gracilis shows many differences from the modern species, and belongs to the new genus Miopelecanus, - Ciconiiformes: Ardea formosa nom. oblit. is a synonym of Proardeola walkeri. - Anseriformes: a new species closely related to swans is described, and belongs to the fossil genus Cygnopterus, of the Middle Oligocene of Europe; this species is called C. alphonsi. The ecology of each species is suggested by comparison with that of its nearest living relatives, and by study of osteological adaptations. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 14, Fasc. 2 (1984)

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La morphologie dentaire des Thalattosuchia (Crocodylia, Mesosuchia).
Patrick Vignaud
Keywords: Dental morphology; Dental types; feeding habits.; Jurassic; Metriorhynchidae; systematics; Teleosauridae; Thalattosuchia
 
  Abstract

    The tooth morphology of the Thalattosuchia (marine crocodilians from the Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous) is analysed. The Callovian from Poitou and the Kimmeridgian from Quercy have yielded many remains of Metriorhynchus, Steneosaurus and Machimosaurus. These remains allow us to study the variations of tooth morphology during ontogenic growth, tooth replacement and the location of the teeth. We have defined different tooth types for these genera. In Metriorhynchus, the two tooth types defined do not coincide with the two groups recognized in the Callovian (broad-skulled and narrow-skulled metriorhynchids) but reflect the prey preferences of these forms. In Steneosaurus and Machimosaurus the five tooth types deñned are in agreement with the main taxa known from the Bathonian to the Early Cretaceous. This study allows to precise the function and the prey preference of the Thalattosuchia during the Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous.

      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 26, Fasc. 1-4 (1997)

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The Quaternary avifauna of Crete, Greece.
Peter D. Weesie
Keywords: Avifauna; Crete; Quaternary; systematics
 
  Abstract

    Pleistocene bird fossils have been studied from nine localities on Crete. Part of this material was described earlier by the author (Weesie, 1982) and will not be treated here in extenso, the results will be incorporated. More than one third of the over 10,000 fossil bird bones available could be identified ; they were found to represent at least 65 bird species. The following species of the Pleistocene Cretan avifauna are new to the fauna of Crete : Branta ruficollis, Haliaeetus albicilla, Gyps melitensis, Aquila chrysaetos simurgh n. ssp., Ketupa zeylomensis, Aegolius funereus, Dendrocopos leucotos, Zoothera dauma, Turdus iliacus and Pyrrhula pyrrhula. The Pleistocene Cretan avifauna differs less from comparable mainland avifaunas than (fossil) avifaunas from oceanic islands do. Still, the Pleistocene Cretan avifauna has two qualities that are characteristic of island avifaunas : the almost complete absence of a group of birds (the Galliformes) and the presence of two endemic (sub)species : the giant eagle Aquila chrysaetos simurgh n. ssp. and the long-legged owl Athene cretensis (Weesie, 1982). The new subspecies is described in the present study.
    These endemic birds of prey were found in association with their supposedly principal prey species (now extinct as well) : endemic mice for the owl and endemic deer for the eagle. Endemic mammals have been found in association with endemic birds of prey on many islands, not only in the Mediterranean. There is evidence that the size of endemic birds of prey becomes optimally adapted to their feeding on certain endemic mammals, especially rodents. Another characteristic of the Pleistocene Cretan avifauna is the great number of species of birds of prey. This appears to be a common characteristic of fossil avifaunas from caves on Mediterranean islands as well as from caves on the European mainland. However, we think that ecological conditions on Pleistocene Crete (especially the abundant presence of mice) helped to account for the high representation of birds of prey. Furthemore, the fossil avifauna enables us to draw some conclusions about the climate and vegetation on Pleistocene Crete : it is concluded that the climate was cooler than today and that Crete was largely covered with forests. Finally, the reasons for the extinction or disappearance from Crete of some bird species of the Pleistocene Cretan avifauna are discussed. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 18, Fasc. 1 (1988)

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Les rongeurs du site Pliocène à Hominidés de Hadar (Ethiope)
Maurice Sabatier
Keywords: Ethiopia; hominids; Muridae; Pliocene
 
  Abstract

    The intensive exploration of the Pliocene Hadar Formation, rich in hominid remains, led us to the discovery of several micromammals levels. ln some of them, rodents are very abundant. The stratigraphic repartition of these levels do not cover the whole fossiliferous series of the formation but takes place only in the sedimentary members from Sidi Hakoma and Denen-Dora (rancing from 3.1 - 3.2 MY to 2.8 - 2.9 MY, according to the recent geochronological data). During this gap of time, the species do not show morphological changes, what allowed us to gather, in the same taxa, forms of slighty different ages.
    Two striking facts, giving a lot of indications, characterize these small rodents'faunas. First, we notice the domination of the Muridae, as well on a qualitative way (number of species) as on a quantitative one (number of individuals). Then, it appears that, until now, two genera of these murids were known only in the south-western asiatic regions. So, we can suppose continuous biotops between Africa and Indian Subcontinent before 3 MY. In this hypothesis, the hominids had already the possibility to leave their african « cradle ››. Finally, almost all studied genera are still represented at the present time. This fact, previously observed in Laetolil, Omo, Olduvai contributes to remove hope of establishing a biochronological scale based on rodents, in tropical zone. Nethertheless, that allows to try a reconstruction of the palaeoenvironnement, by using the principle of actualism.
      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 12, Fasc. 1 (1982)

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