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Print ISSN: 0031-0247
Online ISSN: 2274-0333
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Equus caballus antunesi, nouvelle sous-espèce Quaternaire du Portugal
Joao L. Cardoso and Véra Eisenmann
Keywords: Equidae; Equus caballus; new subspecies; Perissodactyla; Portugal; Würm

    Equus caballus antunesi, nova subspecies, was a hypsodont, slender, and rather small horse (around 141cm at the withers), with narrow hooves and protocones longer on P3/-P4/ than on M1/-M2/. It does not fit in any of the different "types" of Pleistocene caballine horses previously recognized but may be related to the horse from the Acheulean of Solana del Zamborino.
    Hypsodonty, small size, slenderness, narrow hooves are all characters that can easily be related to ecological conditions. Equus caballus antunesi was probably a horse adapted to rather dry and cold conditions and to a hard ground. It does not seem related at all to the North-European Equus caballus germanicus-gallicus group. 

  Article infos

Published in Vol. 19, Fasc. 2 (1989)

Study of the Turolian hipparions of the lower Axios valley (Macedonia, Greece). 4. Localities of Dytiko.
George D. Koufos
Keywords: Equidae; Greece; Hipparion; Lower Axios Valley; Macedonia; Mammalia; Turolian

    The hipparions from the Dytiko localities of the lower Axios valley (Macedonia, Greece) are studied. The material comes from three localities Dytiko-l, 2, 3 (DTK, DIT, DKO), which are situated near the village of Dytiko, about 60 km northwest to Thessaloniki. Three species have been determined, the medium-sized H. mediterraneum, the small-sized H. matthewi and the very small-sized H. periafricanum. The determined Hipparion species, their morphological characters and their comparison with the other Axios valley material indicate a Late Turolian age for the Dytiko localities. 

  Article infos

Published in Vol. 18, Fasc. 4 (1988)

Contributions à l'étude du gisement Miocène supérieur de Montredon (Hérault). Les grands mammifères. 5 - Les périssodactyles Equidae
Véra Eisenmann
Keywords: Equidae; Hipparion; Late Vallesian; Mammalia; Montredon; Perissodactyla

    Revision of the hipparion material from Montredon, including newly excavated and other unpublished specimens brings evidence of specific heterogeneity.
    A fragmentary very small MC III seems very close to H. macedonicum from the upper Vallesian of Ravin de la Pluie, Greece. In that same site was also found a large hipparion.
    Most of the Montredon material is referred to H. depereti. This species associates characters usually found in Vallesian hipparions (highly plicated upper cheek teeth, deep vestíbular grooves on the lower cheek teeth, robust metapodials) with characters more frequent in Turolian forms (middle size, lack of confluence in the upper premolar fossettes, lack of ectostylids on the adult lower cheek teeth, well developped keel on the MC III, facette for the 2nd cuneiform present on all MT III). H. depereti shares some of these characters with the Spanish and Portuguese hipparions transítional between the Vallesian and the Turolian (Masia del Barbo, Azambujeira) but is not identícal to any of them. The upper Vallesian hipparion material from Diavata, Greece, probably belongs to H. depereti but not the large hipparion rests from Ravin de la Pluie.
    Thus, Montredon and Ravin de la Pluie may well share the same small species, H. macedonicum, but they differ in the associated one: middle-sized H. depereti at Montredon, large-sized H. primigenium at Ravin de la Pluie. Both sites, however, give evidence of small hipparions during the Vallesian, coexisting with other larger species.
    The present paper also proposes an adaptation of the Kiesewalter's indices that calculates the height at the withers using the metapodial length, and discusses indices proposed by Gromova and by Sen et al. to express the relative development of the metapodial keel. 

  Article infos

Published in Vol. 18, Ext (1988)