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Revision des faunes de vertébrés du site de Provenchères-sur-Meuse (Trias terminal, Nord-Est de la France)
Gilles Cuny
Keywords: Amphibians; Fishes; Reptiles; Rhetian; Triassic
 
  Abstract

    Revision of ancient collections and study of new material from Provenchères-sur-Meuse (Rhaetian) lead to signíficant changes in the faunal list of this site. This bring to us important information about the effect of the rhaetian transgression on the evolution of the faunas at this period of time. However, study of
    vertebrate microremains is always difficult and some points remain obscure, like the origin of the prosauropods which yield some remains at Provenchères-sur-Meuse and the survival in Europe during the Rhaetian of temnospondyl arnphibians different from the Plagiosauridae.

      


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Published in Vol. 24, Fasc. 1-2 (1995)

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Schmelzmikrostruktur in den inzisiven alt-und neuweltlicher histricognather nagetiere
Thomas Martin
Keywords: Africa; Caviomorpha; Ctenodactyloidea; Deseadan; Enamel microstructure; Hunter-Schreger bands; Hystricognathi; Incisors; Ischyromyoidea; multiserial; Paleobiogeography; pauciserial; Phiomorpha; Rodentia; South America
 
  Abstract

    Enamel microstructure in the incisors of Old- and New World hystricognath rodents:

    The incisor enamel microstructure in more than 100 genera of fossil and Recent hystricognath and sciurognath rodents was studied. A multiserial schmelzmuster is present in the Hystricognathi, the Ctenodactylidae, advanced Chapattimyidae, and in Pedetes. A redefinition of pauciserial and multiserial HSB is given that makes the two enamel types unambiguously distinguishable which apparently represent well defined evolutionary levels. In the pauciserial Schmelzmuster the IPM is thicker than in the multiserial one. In pauciserial HSB the IPM always surrounds each prism, and the crystallites of the IPM run parallel to prism direction; transition zones between HSB are lacking; the inclination of the HSB is normally very low and the prism cross sections are not flattened but somewhat irregular. The number of prisms per HSB is no good distinctive character for pauciserial and multiserial HSB, since there exists a wide overlap. The pauciserial schmelzmuster is primitive, the multiseiial derived because: 1. the pauciseiial schmelzmuster appears earlier in the fossil record in the most primitive rodents (Paramyids s.l. and Ctenodactyloids); 2. the Eocene Ctenodactyloidea show pauciserial HSB but the Oligocene and younger ones are characterized by multiserial HSB; 3. in the outgroup comparison, the Eurymylidae (Mixodontia) show pauciserial HSB; 4. biomechanically, multiserial HSB strenghten the enamel better than pauciserial HSB, since their IPM runs nearly always in an angle of 45° or more to the prisms.

    In multiseríal HSB three subtypes can be distinguished which are differentiated by the IPM orientation. Primitive is a (rarely strict) parallel or acute angular, anastomozing IPM, and derived is an interrow sheet-like ("plattenartige") IPM. This evolutionary polarity is indicated by enamel evolution in the Ctenodactylidae which show an acute angular IPM in the Oligocene and a rectangular interrow sheet-like IPM since the Miocene. Among the Caviomorpha a rectangular interrow sheet-like IPM is restricted to the Octodontoidea; therefore they must be considered derived in terms of their enamel structure. The first multiserial HSB in rodent incisors appear in phiomyids or chapatrimyids from the Upper Eocene of Algeria. The IPM is acute angular and anastomozing. The worldwide next younger multiserial HSB are found in Lower Oligocene phiomyids of Fayum, Egypt There already a rectangular interrow sheet like IPM is present (in Metaphiomys) besides the acute angular anastomozing IPM.

    The first Caviomorpha from the Deseadan (Oligocene-Miocene) likewise show already acute angular anastomozing IPM (e.g. Scozamys) and rectangular interrow sheet-like IPM (Platypittamys). Therefore the first Caviomorpha cannot be positioned close to a transition from pauciserial to multiserial HSB. In none of the potential caviomorph ancestors from southern North America multiserial HSB or transitional stage between pauciserial and multiserial HSB could be found. The similarities between the enamel types of the Fayum rodents and the rodents from the Deseadan of South America make a derivation of the Caviomorpha from Paleogene North African phiomorph rodents or their direct ancestors most probable. This supports at the same time a descent of the platyrrhine Primates from North African anthropoids.
      


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Published in Vol. 21, Ext (1992)

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Acinoptèrygiens du Stéphanien de Montceau-les-Mines (Saône-et-Loire, France).
Daniel Heyler and Cécile Poplin
Keywords: Aeduelliforms; Biogeography; Palaeonisciforms; paramblypteriforms; Stephanien
 
  Abstract

    The study of new specimens from the Stephanian shales of Montceau-les-Mines confirms and enlarges the number of groups already known in this area. Among the Palaeonisciforms, “form A" is now known more completely, although no diagnosis or name can yet be given for it. “Form B" is redescribed and its relationships with “Elonichthys robisoni" are discussed. A palaeoniscid is recorded which resembles those from Bourbon l'Archambault. The paramblypteriforms occur rather frequently, but no genera can be determined. The aeduelliforms comprise some specimens close to Aeduella blainvíllei from Muse (Autun basin), and a new genus. Comparison of the latter with two fossils from Lally allows creation of two new species and a new family. This diversification of the aeduelliforms during this middle Stephanian leads to the hypothesis that the group originated at least as early the lower Stephanian. This material prooves again the characteristic endemism of this fauna, particularly of the aeduelliforms which are known only in the Massif Central where they diversified during the Permo-Carboniferous. Biogeographical consequences are discussed. 


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Published in Vol. 13, Fasc. 3 (1983)

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Modification du statut générique de quelques espèces de sélaciens crétacés et tertiaires
Henri Cappetta
Keywords: Cretaceous; Selachians; Tertiary
 
  Abstract

    The re-examination of six fossil selachian species has involved the creation of six new genera: Squatiscyllium, Protolamna, Parotodus, Abdounia, Physogaleus, Hypolophodon and of one new species : Prozolamna sokolovi. The modification of the generic statute of these species allows to clarify their systematic position and to define their relationships at a familial level. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 10, Fasc. 1 (1980)

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Les vertébres dévoniens de la Montagne Noire (Sud de la France) et leur apport à la phylogénie des pachyosteomorphes (Placodermes Arthrodires).
Hervé Lelièvre, Raimund Feist, Daniel Goujet and Alain Blieck
Keywords: Devonian; Montagne Noire; New taxon; Phylogeny; Placoderms; Stratigraphy; Vertebrate
 
  Abstract

    Several different taxa of jawed vertebrates are reported for the first time from the Devonian of south-eastern Montagne Noire, France. Besides some undeterminable fragments of placoderm fishes from the Pragian and Lower Emsian, the material from the Upper Devonian is mainly represented by Melanosteus occitanus gen. and sp. nov. (Frasnian) and Thoralodus cabrieri LEHMAN, 1952 ("Famennian"). The good state of preservation of Melanosteus allows a detailed anatomical study leading to a phylogenetic analysis of the selenosteid pachyosteomorphs. 


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Published in Vol. 17, Fasc. 1 (1987)

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Sur le plus ancien Lagomorphe Européen et la "Grande Coupure" Oligocène de Stehlin
Nieves Lopez-Martinez and Louis Thaler
Keywords: Grande Coupure; Lagomorphe; Oligocene
 
  Abstract

    Pour la première fois un spécimen de lagomorphe a été récolté en Quercy. L'intérêt de ce fossile tient surtout à son âge géologique inattendu, qui recule considérablement la date de première apparition en Europe de cet ordre de mammifère, Ceci nous paraît justifier une nouvelle réflexion sur la « grande coupure» oligocène, 


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Published in Vol. 06, Fasc. 3-4 (1975)

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La plus ancienne faune de mammifères du Quercy : Le Bretou
Jean-Louis Hartenberger, Bernard Sigé and Jean Sudre
Keywords: Le Bretou; Quercy phosphorites
 
  Abstract

    Abstract not available 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 06, Fasc. 3-4 (1975)

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Analysis of mammalian communities from the late Eocene and Oligocene of southern France
Serge Legendre
Keywords: Late Eocene; Mammalian communities; Oligocene; Quercy; Southern France
 
  Abstract

    Valverde's cenogram method is used to analyse mammalian communities from the late Eocene to late Oligocene of southern France, mainly from the "Phosphorites du Quercy". Cenogram analysis involves plotting the size of each component species in a fauna on a semilog diagram in rank order, permitting fossil faunas to be compared with Recent ones. The configurations of Recent communities serve as models for establishing the general environmental characteristics of fossil mammalian faunas. This method of analysis applied to faunal sequence can reveal major and sudden ecological perturbations. The paleobiogeographical event (i.e. the mammalian immigration wave) at the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in western Europe, known as the «Grande Coupure", is here shown to represent a drastic and sudden ecological change: late Eocene tropical environments in Europe deteriorated rapidly turning to subdesert or desert environments al the beginning of the Oligoccne. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 16, Fasc. 4 (1986)

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Sur la présence de dents de mammifères (Creodonta, Perissodactyla) près de la limite Paléocène-Eocène à Hoegaarden, Belgique
Richard Smith and Jerry J. Hooker
Keywords: Belgium; Creodonta; Landenian; Mammals; Perissodactyla
 
  Abstract

    Amongst a collection of selachian teeth made at Hoegaarden in a marine level of Bruxellian (Lutetian) age, containing a reworked Landenian (Sparnacian) fauna mixed with a contemporaneous one, a few teeth of  terrestrial mammals have been discovered. They comprise two rare European taxa: ? Hallensia sp. and Palaeonictis gigantea, both known from the Landenian. Even though the ?Hallensia has not been definitely identified, il differs from the only perissodactyl of this age previously recorded from Belgium (Cymbalophus cuniculus). 


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Published in Vol. 25, Fasc. 2-4 (1996)

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Pronycticebus neglectus - an almost complete adapid primate specimen from the Geiseltal (GDR)
Urs Thalmann, Hartmut Haubold and Robert D. Martin
Keywords: Adapiformes; Eocene; Paleoecology; Phylogeny; Pronycticebus neglectus
 
  Abstract

    In the course of the current revision of adapid primates from the Eocene Geiseltal, an almost complete specimen was found in the Geiseltal Museum collections. The fossil, the most complete adapid specimen so far discovered in Europe, has been determined as Pronycticebus neglectus n. sp.
    Ecology and locomotion as well as the likely phylogenetic position within the infraorder Adapiformes are discussed. 


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Published in Vol. 19, Fasc. 3 (1989)

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A new species of hippopotamine (Cetartiodactyla, Hippopotamidae) from the late Miocene Baynunah Formation, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Jean-Renaud Boisserie, Mathieu Schuster, Mark J. Beech, Andrew Hill and Faysal Bibi
Keywords: Arab Peninsula; Hippopotamidae; Hippopotamine event; systematics

doi: 10.18563/pv.41.1.e2
 
  Abstract

    The discovery of new hippopotamid material from the late Miocene Baynunah Formation (Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) has prompted the revision of the existing material of this as yet unnamed fossil taxon. The Baynunah hippopotamid appears to be distinct from all other contemporary and later species in having a relatively more elongate symphysis, a feature similar to the earlier (and more primitive) Kenyapotamus. Yet, the Baynunah hippopotamid presents a dentition typical of the Hippopotaminae. It is therefore a distinct species attributed to the later subfamily, described and named in this contribution. This species provides further evidence for a ca. 8 Ma evolutionary event (termed “Hippopotamine Event”) that initiated the spread and ecological significance of the Hippopotaminae into wet habitats across Africa and Eurasia. The morphological affinities of the new species from Abu Dhabi suggest that the Arabian Peninsula was not a dispersal route from Africa toward southern Asia for the Hippopotamidae at ca. 7.5 Ma to 6.5 Ma. 


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in press

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S.I. Data
New murids and gerbillids (Rodentia, Mammalia) from Pliocene Siwalik sediments of India.
Rajeev Patnaik
Keywords: dental morphology; evolution; new species of murids and gerbillids; phylogenetic relationships; systematics
 
  Abstract

    Murids and gerbillids (Rodentia, Mammalia) recovered from four Upper Siwalik localities; Moginand (around 3.5-4.5 m.y.), Kanthro (around 2.5 m.y.), Ghaggar (around 2 m.y.) and Nadah (around 1.8-2 m.y.) are described herein. A comparison of Mus linnaeusi sp. nov. reveals its close relationship towards the house mouse Mus musculus. In contradiction to earlier proposals that Golunda migrated to the Indian subcontinent from Africa sometime during Late Pliocene, it is suggested here that Golunda (in the form of Golunda tatroticus sp. nov.) evolved from Parapelomys robertsí of Late Miocene deposits of Siwaliks. Golunda tatroticus sp. nov. exhibits a progressive relationship to the extant Indian Bush Rat Golunda ellioti through Golunda kelleri and Golunda sp. Tatera pinjoricus sp. nov. is considered here to be a link between the extinct Abudhabia kabulense and the extant Tatera indica.

      


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Published in Vol. 26, Fasc. 1-4 (1997)

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Middle Eocene rodents from the Subathu group, Northwest Himalya.
Kishor Kumar, Rahul Srivastava and Ashok Sahni
Keywords: Chapattimyidae; Eocene; evolution; India; Rodentia; Subathu group; systematics
 
  Abstract

    Extensive collecting in previously known and new Middle Eocene rodent localities in the Subathu Group of the Rajauri and Reasi districts, Jammu and Kashmir (northwest Himalaya, India) has yielded over 500 isolated cheek teeth, numerous incisors and cheek tooth fragments, and two mandibular fragments with M/1-M/3. An analysis of this additional material and a restudy of that reported earlier from the Metka (Rajauri) area has revealed the presence of diverse Middle Eocene ctenodactyloid rodents in India. The assemblage comprises six genera and twelve species, viz.., Bírbalomys woodi, B. ibrahimshahi, B. sondaari, Basalomys vandermeuleni, B. ijlsti, B. lavocati, Chapattimys wilsoni, C. debruijni, Gumbatomys asifi, cf. Advenimus bohlini, cf. Petrokoslovia sp. indet. 1 and cf. Petrokoslovia sp. indet. 2. Most species of this assemblage are endemic to the Indian subcontinent and are referred to the Family Chapattimyidae. However, at least three taxa, viz.., cf. Advenimus bohlini, cf. Petrokoslovia sp.indet. 1 and cf. Pezrokoslovia sp. indet. 2 show close affinities with their Central and Eastern Asiatic contemporaries and are attributed to the Family Yuomyidae. The dentitions of most of the Middle Eocene rodents from India are described here in better detail thus providing more precise characterization than was available earlier. The taxonomie status of Basalomys, formerly a subgenus of Birbalomys has been raised to that of a genus. Basalomys vandermeuleni is here designated as the type species of Basalomys in place of B. ijlsti. The rodent assemblage from the Subathu Group is specifically similar to that from the coeval Kuldana Formation of Pakistan. The absence of Birbalomys ibrahimshahi and cf. Advenimus bohlini in Pakistan is related to sampling bias. The identifications of the Early Eocene rodents from Barbara Banda, Pakistan have been reexamined and the familial assignments of some of the Early and Middle Eocene rodents from Central and Eastern Asia have been discussed and reviewed in the light of recent discovery of early rodents in Mongolia.

      


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Published in Vol. 26, Fasc. 1-4 (1997)

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Etude des dents jugales inférieures des Equus (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) actuels et fossiles
Véra Eisenmann
Keywords: Cheek teeth; Equus; Mammals
 
  Abstract

    The comparative morphology and biometry of the lower cheek teeth of modern Equus are studied on approximately 300 mandibles belonging to the 10 usually recognised species : Equus grevyi, E. burchelli, E. quagga, E. zebra, E. africanus, E. asinus, E. hemionus, E. klang, E. przewalskii, E. caballus. The studied parameters comprise : occlusal length and width, postflexid length and index ; shape of the double knot (metaconid + metastylid + lingual groove) ; depth of the vestibular groove on the molars ; frequency of the pli caballinid, protostylid and other enamel plications or islets ; frequency of the dP/l.
    The same methods of study are applied to a number of North American, Eurasian and African species. For the sake of comparison, some Hemphillian equids were observed (Dinohippus interpolatus, Dinohippus leidyanus, Astrohippus ansae, Phiohippus mexicanus) but most of the discussed material belongs to Pliocene or Pleistocene species of Equus : the « stenonine ›› E. stenonis, E. simplicidens, E. sanmeniensis and E. teilhardi; the « caballine ›› E. scotti, E. lambei, E. Iaurentius, E. mosbachensis, E. germanicus, E. gallicus, E. taubachensis and the Liakhov horse. The relationships of other species, in particular the North American E. calobatus, E. occidentalis, E. cf mexicanus are not clear for the moment. ln Africa, the Plio-Pleistocene species from Koobi Fora (Kenya) show some stenonine and perhaps asinine affinities. The relationships of E. numidicus and E. tabeti are uncertain but these species are probably related to the East African ones. E. mauritanicus is most certainly related to the Quagga group.
    The biometrical data are gathered in 32 tables ; 4 photographie plates and 19 figures illustrate the next. The whole is a complement of the previously published studies of the skulls, upper cheek teeth, incisors and metapodials of modern and fossil Equus.

      


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Published in Vol. 10, Fasc. 3-4 (1981)

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Contributions à l'étude du gisement Miocène supérieur de Montredon (Hérault). Les grands mammifères. 2 - les carnivores
Gérard de Beaumont
Keywords: Anatomy; Carnivora; France; Montredon; systematics; Upper Miocene
 
  Abstract

    The locality of Montredon has provided 8 species of camivores, often little documented, that are discribed and depicted. All the remains are fragmentary and generally badly preserved which lowers very much the possible precision of the taxonomic study; this one has however allowed the creation of a new subspecies. The most richlypdocumented forms are an ursid (Indarctos) and a felid (Machairodus). Issuing often from a westem Europe evolution, the carnivores are well inserted between those of the better known faunas of the "Classical Pontian" and of the lower Vallesian and this situation fits also well with their stratigraphic level, that cannot however be more accurately defined with them alone.
      


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Published in Vol. 18, Ext (1988)

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Dating dinosaur oodiversity: chronostratigraphic control of LateCretaceous oospecies succession.
Nieves Lopez-Martinez
Keywords: Biostratigraphy; Chronology; dinosaur eggshells; Late Cretaceous
 
  Abstract

    An increasing fossil record of dinosaur eggs and eggshells allows putting ootaxa within a chronostratigraphic framework, in order to study their distribution pattern leading eventually to their use as biochronological markers. For these purposes, high-quality data exists in four major regions; North America, South America, Europe and Asia (Central Asia and India). Most of the highly diverse dinosaur egg record has been dated as Latest Cretaceous in age (Campanian-Maastrichtian), reaching the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary closer than the dinosaur bone record. However, dating continental sections is problematic and need to be carefully verified, as it appears when comparing the European dinosaur eggshell record from two well-studied areas. Ootaxa distribution in both sides of the Pyrenees (Tremp and Aix basins) shows comparable oospecies successions, but different chronology. This disagreement probably indicates that one or both successions have a wrong chronostratigraphic calibration.  


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 32, Fasc. 2-4 (2003)

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Systematic revision of Ctenodactylidae (Mammalia, Rodentia) from theMiocene of Pakistan.
J.A. Baskin
Keywords: Ctenodactylidae; Miocene; Prosayimys; Rodents; Sayimys; Siwalik
 
  Abstract

    Extensive sampling of the Siwalik deposits of the Potwar Plateau of northem Pakistan and from the Zinda Pir dome of central Pakistan has produced a fossil record of Miocene ctenodactylids that can be correlated with the paleomagnetic time scale. The early Miocene Prosayimys flynni (n. gen., n. sp.) is recognized as the first ctenodactylid in the Indian subcontinent. Prosayimys is ancestral to Sayimys. From the late early Miocene to the early late Miocene, there is an anagenetic succession of three species of Sayimys: S. cf. S. intermedius, S. sivalensis, and S. chinjiensis (n. sp.). Sayimys chinjiensis gave rise to the late late Miocene S. perplexus. A second lineage is represented by Sayimys minor, S. sp. A, and S. sp. B. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 25, Fasc. 1 (1996)

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Premières données sur les carnivores fissipèdes provenant des fouilles récentes dans le Quercy
Louis de Bonis
Keywords: Carnivores; Quercy phosphorites
 
  Abstract

    Abstract not available 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 06, Fasc. 1-2 (1974)

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Preliminary evolution of paleosols and implications for interpreting vertebrate fossil assemblages, Kuldana formation, Northern Pakistan
Andres Aslan and J. G. M. Thewissen
Keywords: Eocene; Kuldana Formation; Pakistan; Paleosols; Pedogenic Carbonate; taphonomy; Time Averaging; Vertebrate Fossils
 
  Abstract

    Paleosols and the taphonomy of vertebrate fossils in the Eocene Kuldana Formation of northern Pakistan provide important information on the preservation and time-averaging of fossil assemblages. Morphologic, mineralogic, and chemical data as well as comparisons with Quaternary soils suggest that Kuldana paleosols formed under generally dry and oxidizing conditions over time intervals of less than 100 000 years and perhaps as short as 1000 years. The distribution of carbonate in Kuldana paleosols further indicates that the upper half of the profiles were acidic whereas the lower halves were alkaline. Vertebrate fossils are rare in Kuldana paleosols and occur primarily in well-cemented sandstones and conglomerates with abundant micritic and iron-stained nodules that were reworked from floodplain soils. The scarcity of vertebrate remains in Kuldana paleosols probably reflects a combination of acidic, dry, and oxidizing conditions in the upper half of the profiles and rapid floodplain sedimentation. Comparisons between the taphonomic characteristics of Kuldana channel fossil assemblages and bone accumulations in modem rivers provide a basis for estimating the length of time represented by Kuldana fossils from several important localities. Vertebrate fossil assemblages from Barbora Banda are characterized by a low-diversity paleofauna, partially articulated skeletons, and bones that are sorted by size and shape. Comparison with bone accumulations in modern rivers suggests that the fossils from Barbora Banda accumulated in 1 to 10 years. Vertebrate fossils from the Lower Kuldana in the Kala Chitta Hills region, typified by locality H-GSP 62, are characterized by a high-diversity paleofauna and generally random and unsorted fossil bone distributions, which suggest that the fossils from these localities represent longer time intervals than the Barbora Banda fossils. Based on the time estimates for Kuldana paleosol development, fossil assemblages in Kuldana channel deposits in the Kala Chitta Hills region probably represent time intervals of about 1000 years. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 25, Fasc. 2-4 (1996)

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Les rongeurs du site Pliocène à Hominidés de Hadar (Ethiope)
Maurice Sabatier
Keywords: Ethiopia; hominids; Muridae; Pliocene
 
  Abstract

    The intensive exploration of the Pliocene Hadar Formation, rich in hominid remains, led us to the discovery of several micromammals levels. ln some of them, rodents are very abundant. The stratigraphic repartition of these levels do not cover the whole fossiliferous series of the formation but takes place only in the sedimentary members from Sidi Hakoma and Denen-Dora (rancing from 3.1 - 3.2 MY to 2.8 - 2.9 MY, according to the recent geochronological data). During this gap of time, the species do not show morphological changes, what allowed us to gather, in the same taxa, forms of slighty different ages.
    Two striking facts, giving a lot of indications, characterize these small rodents'faunas. First, we notice the domination of the Muridae, as well on a qualitative way (number of species) as on a quantitative one (number of individuals). Then, it appears that, until now, two genera of these murids were known only in the south-western asiatic regions. So, we can suppose continuous biotops between Africa and Indian Subcontinent before 3 MY. In this hypothesis, the hominids had already the possibility to leave their african « cradle ››. Finally, almost all studied genera are still represented at the present time. This fact, previously observed in Laetolil, Omo, Olduvai contributes to remove hope of establishing a biochronological scale based on rodents, in tropical zone. Nethertheless, that allows to try a reconstruction of the palaeoenvironnement, by using the principle of actualism.
      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 12, Fasc. 1 (1982)

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